Category Archives: web services

JMS with proper transactional properties

The main reason I am interested in JMS (inside the application) is for the transactional properties. JMS allows you to start an asynchronous task and make sure that the task is only scheduled if the transaction in which the JMS message was sent succeeds.

Similarly, JMS is smart enough to retry receiving the message until it was processed successfully (potentially with a backout scenario to assure that retries don’t hog the system).

This sounds great, but configuring JMS to work like this is hard.

The generic solution is to use XA transactions. In that case the transactions of your data sources (like your database) and your JMS provider are synchronized.

If you are only using one database, then using that database for persistence of your JMS messages avoids the need for XA transactions. There is only one data source, so no transactions to synchronize.

Using Spring and ActiveMQ this can be done using a configuration like the following. This only uses the JMS inside the application, connection from the outside is not possible. This example persists in a PostgreSQL database.

<!--  Embedded ActiveMQ Broker -->
<amq:broker id="broker" useJmx="false" persistent="true">
        <amq:transportConnector uri="tcp://localhost:0" />
        <amq:jdbcPersistenceAdapter changeAutoCommitAllowed="false" createTablesOnStartup="false" useDatabaseLock="false">
            <amq:dataSource><ref bean="dataSource" /></amq:dataSource>
<!--  ActiveMQ Destinations  -->
<amq:queue id="zzzz" physicalName="" />
<!-- JMS ConnectionFactory to use, configuring the embedded broker using XML -->
<amq:connectionFactory id="jmsFactory" brokerURL="vm://localhost" />
<bean id="jmsTransactionManager" class="org.springframework.jms.connection.JmsTransactionManager">
    <property name="connectionFactory" ref="jmsFactory" />
<bean id="jmsConnectionFactory" class="org.springframework.jms.connection.CachingConnectionFactory"
      p:targetConnectionFactory-ref="jmsFactory" />
<bean id="jmsListenerContainerFactory" class="org.springframework.jms.config.DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory">
    <property name="connectionFactory" ref="jmsConnectionFactory" />
    <property name="sessionTransacted" value="true" />
    <property name="concurrency" value="3-10" />
<bean id="jmsProducerTemplate" class="org.springframework.jms.core.JmsTemplate"
      p:sessionTransacted="true" />

Your messages are now only delivered when your transaction in which the message was sent succeeds.
When the transaction in which the message is received rolls back, the message will be redelivered.

If needed, you can control how many times the message should be attempted to be processed. This can be done using code like the following:

@JmsListener(destination = "")
private static final int MAX_DELIVERY_ATTEMPTS = 3;
public void onMessage(Message message) {
    try {
        int count = message.getIntProperty("JMSXDeliveryCount");
        if (count > MAX_DELIVERY_ATTEMPTS) {
            LOG.warn("Processing JMS message {} failed {} times. It will not be retried.", message, MAX_DELIVERY_ATTEMPTS);
        // ..... normal handling of message
    } catch (JMSException e) {
        // ..... handle exception

Building an executable jar with embedded web server

To make using and deploying our application easier, I want it to be easy to run the application. Instead of requiring the installation of a servlet server like Tomcat, Jetty or a full blown application server, I aim to use an embedded server.

The end result is the ability to run our application using the following command:

java -jar application.jar

Possibly using some additional parameters like

java -DserverPort=8080 -DshutdownPort=8089 -jar application.jar

As web server I chose Undertow, a relatively new server which is also used in WildFly.

I want the result jar to still show the included libraries, so I do not want to make an uber-jar using something like the maven shade plugin. I rather want to build a jar which includes jars with all the dependencies.

Building this jar can be done using the maven assembly plugin, using a configuration like the following:

<assembly xmlns=""

I use a separate module to build the jar. In this module the main pom mainly contains all the application dependencies and the following configuration:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="" xmlns:xsi=""
    <name>Build executable jar</name>
        <!-- module dependencies which build the application -->
                        <id>make-assembly</id> <!-- this is used for inheritance merges -->
                        <phase>package</phase> <!-- bind to the packaging phase -->

This module will now build two jars, a normal jar (very small) and one with the dependencies which has the “with-deps” suffix. The latter can be used to start the application.

In the module itself we need only two classes.

We need a main class to start the application (the “mainClass” which is referenced in the manifest). This should start the application. To assure that the embedded jars are used, we need a special classloader. Apart from that, the main method refers to a different class which runs the application.

public final class WarRunner {
    private WarRunner() {
        // hide constructor
     * Run de "real" runner from the application.
     * @param args command line parameters
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        try {
            JarClassLoader.invokeMain("myapp.AppRunner", args);
        } catch (Throwable e) {
            System.err.println("Cannot run myapp.AppRunner: " + e.getMessage());

The second class is the JarClassLoader. This is based on the code from embedded jar classloader, but with some fixes.

public class JarClassLoader extends URLClassLoader {
    private static boolean isJar(String fileName) {
        return fileName != null && fileName.toLowerCase().endsWith(".jar");
    private static File jarEntryAsFile(JarFile jarFile, JarEntry jarEntry) throws IOException {
        String name = jarEntry.getName().replace('/', '_');
        int i = name.lastIndexOf(".");
        String extension = i > -1 ? name.substring(i) : "";
        File file = File.createTempFile(name.substring(0, name.length() - extension.length()) + ".", extension);
        try (InputStream input = jarFile.getInputStream(jarEntry)) {
            try (OutputStream output = new FileOutputStream(file)) {
                int readCount;
                byte[] buffer = new byte[4096];
                while ((readCount = != -1) {
                    output.write(buffer, 0, readCount);
                return file;
     * Build classpath with extra jars in it.
     * @param urls urls
     * @param parent parent class loader
    public JarClassLoader(URL[] urls, ClassLoader parent) {
        super(urls, parent);
        try {
            ProtectionDomain protectionDomain = getClass().getProtectionDomain();
            CodeSource codeSource = protectionDomain.getCodeSource();
            URL rootJarUrl = codeSource.getLocation();
            String rootJarName = rootJarUrl.getFile();
            if (isJar(rootJarName)) {
                addJarResource(new File(rootJarUrl.getPath()));
        } catch (IOException e) {
    private void addJarResource(File file) throws IOException {
        JarFile jarFile = new JarFile(file);
        Enumeration<JarEntry> jarEntries = jarFile.entries();
        while (jarEntries.hasMoreElements()) {
            JarEntry jarEntry = jarEntries.nextElement();
            if (!jarEntry.isDirectory() && isJar(jarEntry.getName())) {
                addJarResource(jarEntryAsFile(jarFile, jarEntry));
    public synchronized Class<?> loadClass(String name) throws ClassNotFoundException {
        try {
            Class<?> clazz = findLoadedClass(name);
            if (clazz == null) {
                clazz = findClass(name);
            return clazz;
        } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
            return super.loadClass(name);
     * Invoke main method in given class using this classloader.
     * @param name class to invoke
     * @param args command line arguments
     * @throws ClassNotFoundException oops
     * @throws NoSuchMethodException oops
     * @throws InvocationTargetException oops
    public static void invokeMain(String name, String[] args) throws ClassNotFoundException, NoSuchMethodException, InvocationTargetException {
        ClassLoader contextClassLoader = Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader();
        try {
            final String mainMethodName = "main";
            JarClassLoader loader = new JarClassLoader(((URLClassLoader) ClassLoader.getSystemClassLoader()).getURLs(), contextClassLoader);
            Thread.currentThread().setContextClassLoader(loader); // replace contextClassloader
            Class<?> clazz = loader.loadClass(name);
            Method method = clazz.getMethod(mainMethodName, String[].class);
            int mods = method.getModifiers();
            if (method.getReturnType() != void.class || !Modifier.isStatic(mods) || !Modifier.isPublic(mods)) {
                throw new NoSuchMethodException(mainMethodName);
            try {
                method.invoke(null, (Object) args); // Crazy cast "(Object)args" because param is: "Object... args"
            } catch (IllegalAccessException e) {
                // This should not happen, as we have disabled access checks
                System.err.println("Probleem during JarClassLoader.invokeMain: " + e.getMessage());
        } finally {

What remains to be done is write the AppRunner class (which should be in the module with the application code):

public final class AppRunner {
    private static final Logger LOG = LoggerFactory.getLogger(AppRunner.class);
    private static final String CONTEXT_PATH = "/app";
    private static final int SERVER_PORT = 8080;
    private static final int SHUTDOWN_PORT = 8089;
    private static final int SHUTDOWN_WAIT = 5;
    private static GracefulShutdownHandler shutdownHandler;
    private static Undertow server;
    private AppRunner() {
        // hide constructor
     * Main method to start the application
     * @param args command line parameters - not used at the moment - configuration through properties
    public static void main(final String[] args) {
        int serverPort = getProperty("km.server.port").orElse(SERVER_PORT);
        int shutdownPort = getProperty("km.shutdown.port").orElse(SHUTDOWN_PORT);
        int shutdownWaitSeconds = getProperty("km.shutdown.wait").orElse(SHUTDOWN_WAIT);
        try {
            ClassLoader classLoader = Thread.currentThread().getContextClassLoader();
            DeploymentInfo servletBuilder = Servlets.deployment()
                    .addInitParameter("contextConfigLocation", "classpath:app-web-applicationContext.xml")
                    .addInitParameter("resteasy.logger.type", "SLF4J")
                    .addInitParameter("resteasy.wider.request.matching", "true")
                    .addListener(new ListenerInfo(RequestContextListener.class))
                    .addListener(new ListenerInfo(ResteasyBootstrap.class))
                    .addListener(new ListenerInfo(SpringContextLoaderListener.class))
                    .addServlets(Servlets.servlet("RESTEasy", HttpServletDispatcher.class)
                    .setResourceManager(new ClassPathResourceManager(classLoader, "web"));
            DeploymentManager manager = Servlets.defaultContainer().addDeployment(servletBuilder);
            HttpHandler servletHandler = manager.start();
            PathHandler path = Handlers.path(Handlers.redirect(CONTEXT_PATH))
                    .addPrefixPath(CONTEXT_PATH, servletHandler);
            shutdownHandler = Handlers.gracefulShutdown(path);
            server = Undertow.builder()
                    .addHttpListener(serverPort, "localhost")
                    .addHttpListener(shutdownPort, "localhost", exchange -> {
                        exchange.getResponseHeaders().put(Headers.CONTENT_TYPE, "text/plain");
                                String.format("Going to shutdown when all requests have ended or %s seconds, whichever occurs first.", shutdownWaitSeconds));
                        new Thread(() -> {
                            try {
                                shutdownHandler.awaitShutdown(shutdownWaitSeconds * 1000);
                            } catch (InterruptedException ie) {
                                LOG.warn("Wait for undertow requests to end was interrupted.", ie);
                  "Gracefully shut down.");
        }  catch (ServletException e) {
            LOG.error("Kan servlet niet starten.", e);
    private static Optional<Integer> getProperty(String propertyName) {
        String propertyValue = System.getProperty("km.server.port");
        if (StringUtils.isNotBlank(propertyValue)) {
            try {
                return Optional.of(Integer.parseInt(propertyValue));
            } catch (NumberFormatException nfe) {
                LOG.error(String.format("Cannot parse property %s with value %s to a number, ignoring value.", propertyName, propertyValue));
        return Optional.empty();

This code starts creates a servlet. It says that the resources to be served can be found in the “web” package (as there is no webapp (folder) you have to give the explicit location.
It also registers a shutdown handler. Any request on the shutdown port will block incoming requests and wait for max 5s until pending requests are all handled. Then the server is shut down.

Logging JVM and OS metrics in a spring application

We have a problem. We have an important application which is running in production, but we do not have access to details about the production system. When we get get reports of slowness, there is no way for us to see what was happening on the server at that time. Was memory low, CPU high, is it a garbage collection problem?

We basically wanted to get some insights added in our logs. Fortunately using metrics and metrics-spring this is easy using a configuration file like the following:

<beans xmlns=""
    <!-- Registry should be defined in only one context XML file -->
    <metrics:metric-registry id="metrics" />
    <!-- (Optional) Registry should be defined in only one context XML file -->
    <metrics:reporter type="slf4j" metric-registry="metrics" period="1m" />
    <!-- The registry defines the data to capture. Metrics in this example require the metrics-jvm jar. -->
    <metrics:register metric-registry="metrics">
        <bean metrics:name="jvm.gc" class="com.codahale.metrics.jvm.GarbageCollectorMetricSet" />
        <bean metrics:name="jvm.memory" class="com.codahale.metrics.jvm.MemoryUsageGaugeSet" />
        <bean metrics:name="jvm.thread-states" class="com.codahale.metrics.jvm.ThreadStatesGaugeSet" />
        <bean metrics:name="os" class="" />

metrics-spring by default contains gauges to register the garbage collector behaviour, the memory usage and thread states (including info deadlocks). Is also contains a gauge for the number of file descriptors, but wanted to track more information including

  • committed virtual memory size
  • total swap space (size)
  • free swap space (size)
  • process CPU time
  • total physical memory (size)
  • free physical memory (size)
  • max file descriptor count
  • free file descriptor count
  • system CPU load (average for last minute)
  • process CPU load (average for last minute)

This can be done using the following class:

import com.codahale.metrics.Gauge;
import com.codahale.metrics.Metric;
import com.codahale.metrics.MetricSet;
import java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException;
import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Optional;
 * A set of gauges for operating system settings.
public class OperatingSystemGaugeSet implements MetricSet {
    private final OperatingSystemMXBean mxBean;
    private final Optional<Method> committedVirtualMemorySize;
    private final Optional<Method> totalSwapSpaceSize;
    private final Optional<Method> freeSwapSpaceSize;
    private final Optional<Method> processCpuTime;
    private final Optional<Method> freePhysicalMemorySize;
    private final Optional<Method> totalPhysicalMemorySize;
    private final Optional<Method> openFileDescriptorCount;
    private final Optional<Method> maxFileDescriptorCount;
    private final Optional<Method> systemCpuLoad;
    private final Optional<Method> processCpuLoad;
     * Creates new gauges using the platform OS bean.
    public OperatingSystemGaugeSet() {
     * Creates a new gauges using the given OS bean.
     * @param mxBean an {@link OperatingSystemMXBean}
    public OperatingSystemGaugeSet(OperatingSystemMXBean mxBean) {
        this.mxBean = mxBean;
        committedVirtualMemorySize = getMethod("getCommittedVirtualMemorySize");
        totalSwapSpaceSize = getMethod("getTotalSwapSpaceSize");
        freeSwapSpaceSize = getMethod("getFreeSwapSpaceSize");
        processCpuTime = getMethod("getProcessCpuTime");
        freePhysicalMemorySize = getMethod("getFreePhysicalMemorySize");
        totalPhysicalMemorySize = getMethod("getTotalPhysicalMemorySize");
        openFileDescriptorCount = getMethod("getOpenFileDescriptorCount");
        maxFileDescriptorCount = getMethod("getMaxFileDescriptorCount");
        systemCpuLoad = getMethod("getSystemCpuLoad");
        processCpuLoad = getMethod("getProcessCpuLoad");
    public Map<String, Metric> getMetrics() {
        final Map<String, Metric> gauges = new HashMap<>();
        gauges.put("committedVirtualMemorySize", (Gauge<Long>) () -> invokeLong(committedVirtualMemorySize));
        gauges.put("totalSwapSpaceSize", (Gauge<Long>) () -> invokeLong(totalSwapSpaceSize));
        gauges.put("freeSwapSpaceSize", (Gauge<Long>) () -> invokeLong(freeSwapSpaceSize));
        gauges.put("processCpuTime", (Gauge<Long>) () -> invokeLong(processCpuTime));
        gauges.put("freePhysicalMemorySize", (Gauge<Long>) () -> invokeLong(freePhysicalMemorySize));
        gauges.put("totalPhysicalMemorySize", (Gauge<Long>) () -> invokeLong(totalPhysicalMemorySize));
        gauges.put("fd.usage", (Gauge<Double>) () -> invokeRatio(openFileDescriptorCount, maxFileDescriptorCount));
        gauges.put("systemCpuLoad", (Gauge<Double>) () -> invokeDouble(systemCpuLoad));
        gauges.put("processCpuLoad", (Gauge<Double>) () -> invokeDouble(processCpuLoad));
        return gauges;
    private Optional<Method> getMethod(String name) {
        try {
            final Method method = mxBean.getClass().getDeclaredMethod(name);
            return Optional.of(method);
        } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
            return Optional.empty();
    private long invokeLong(Optional<Method> method) {
        if (method.isPresent()) {
            try {
                return (long) method.get().invoke(mxBean);
            } catch (IllegalAccessException | InvocationTargetException ite) {
                return 0L;
        return 0L;
    private double invokeDouble(Optional<Method> method) {
        if (method.isPresent()) {
            try {
                return (double) method.get().invoke(mxBean);
            } catch (IllegalAccessException | InvocationTargetException ite) {
                return 0.0;
        return 0.0;
    private double invokeRatio(Optional<Method> numeratorMethod, Optional<Method> denominatorMethod) {
        if (numeratorMethod.isPresent() && denominatorMethod.isPresent()) {
            try {
                long numerator = (long) numeratorMethod.get().invoke(mxBean);
                long denominator = (long) denominatorMethod.get().invoke(mxBean);
                if (0 ==  denominator) {
                    return Double.NaN;
                return 1.0 * numerator / denominator;
            } catch (IllegalAccessException | InvocationTargetException ite) {
                return Double.NaN;
        return Double.NaN;


With this configuration, we get some info in the logs every minute, looking something like this:

~dc-local 2015-02-19T21:48:08.496+0100 [] INFO  metrics - type=GAUGE, name=jvm.fd.usage, value=0.12158203125
~dc-local 2015-02-19T21:48:08.496+0100 [] INFO  metrics - type=GAUGE, name=jvm.gc.PS-MarkSweep.count, value=6
~dc-local 2015-02-19T21:48:08.496+0100 [] INFO  metrics - type=GAUGE, name=jvm.gc.PS-MarkSweep.time, value=1388

This is overly verbode in my opinion, so I made a custom logger which is logs everything on one line. You could say this is less readable, but I would use logstash anyway to filter the logs into something more practical.

In the XML file at the top, I want to use a reporter named “compact-slf4j”. Lets register a new reporter using the SPI, in a file named META-INF/services/com.ryantenney.metrics.spring.reporter.ReporterElementParser put

We need to provide an element parser which parses the configuration:

import com.ryantenney.metrics.spring.reporter.AbstractReporterElementParser;
 * Reporter for metrics-spring which logs more compact, all in one line instead of one line for each metric.
public class CompactSlf4jReporterElementParser extends AbstractReporterElementParser {
    private static final String FILTER_REF = "filter-ref";
    private static final String FILTER_PATTERN = "filter";
    public String getType() {
        return "compact-slf4j";
    protected Class<?> getBeanClass() {
        return CompactSlf4jReporterFactoryBean.class;
    protected void validate(ValidationContext c) {
        c.require(CompactSlf4jReporterFactoryBean.PERIOD, DURATION_STRING_REGEX, "Period is required and must be in the form '\\d+(ns|us|ms|s|m|h|d)'");
        c.optional(CompactSlf4jReporterFactoryBean.RATE_UNIT, TIMEUNIT_STRING_REGEX, "Rate unit must be one of the enum constants from java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit");
        c.optional(CompactSlf4jReporterFactoryBean.DURATION_UNIT, TIMEUNIT_STRING_REGEX, "Duration unit must be one of the enum constants from java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit");
        if (c.has(FILTER_PATTERN) && c.has(FILTER_REF)) {
            c.reject(FILTER_REF, "Reporter element must not specify both the 'filter' and 'filter-ref' attributes");

This uses a factory bean which is defined as:

import com.ryantenney.metrics.spring.reporter.AbstractScheduledReporterFactoryBean;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.slf4j.MarkerFactory;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
 * Slf4JReporterFactoryBean.
public class CompactSlf4jReporterFactoryBean extends AbstractScheduledReporterFactoryBean<CompactSlf4jReporter> {
    /** Period attribute. */
    public static final String PERIOD = "period";
    /** Duration unit. */
    public static final String DURATION_UNIT = "duration-unit";
    /** Rate unit. */
    public static final String RATE_UNIT = "rate-unit";
    /** Marker. */
    public static final String MARKER = "marker";
    /** Logger. */
    public static final String LOGGER = "logger";
    public Class<CompactSlf4jReporter> getObjectType() {
        return CompactSlf4jReporter.class;
    protected CompactSlf4jReporter createInstance() {
        final CompactSlf4jReporter.Builder reporter = CompactSlf4jReporter.forRegistry(getMetricRegistry());
        if (hasProperty(DURATION_UNIT)) {
            reporter.convertDurationsTo(getProperty(DURATION_UNIT, TimeUnit.class));
        if (hasProperty(RATE_UNIT)) {
            reporter.convertRatesTo(getProperty(RATE_UNIT, TimeUnit.class));
        if (hasProperty(MARKER)) {
        if (hasProperty(LOGGER)) {
    protected long getPeriod() {
        return convertDurationString(getProperty(PERIOD));

The actual work in done in the reporter itself:

import com.codahale.metrics.Counter;
import com.codahale.metrics.Gauge;
import com.codahale.metrics.Histogram;
import com.codahale.metrics.Meter;
import com.codahale.metrics.MetricFilter;
import com.codahale.metrics.MetricRegistry;
import com.codahale.metrics.ScheduledReporter;
import com.codahale.metrics.Snapshot;
import com.codahale.metrics.Timer;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import org.slf4j.Marker;
import java.util.Map.Entry;
import java.util.SortedMap;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
 * A reporter class for logging metrics values to a SLF4J {@link Logger} periodically, similar to
 * {@link com.codahale.metrics.ConsoleReporter} or {@link com.codahale.metrics.CsvReporter}, but using the SLF4J framework instead. It also
 * supports specifying a {@link Marker} instance that can be used by custom appenders and filters
 * for the bound logging toolkit to further process metrics reports.
public final class CompactSlf4jReporter extends ScheduledReporter {
    private final Logger logger;
    private final Marker marker;
     * Returns a new {@link Builder} for {@link CompactSlf4jReporter}.
     * @param registry the registry to report
     * @return a {@link Builder} instance for a {@link CompactSlf4jReporter}
    public static Builder forRegistry(MetricRegistry registry) {
        return new Builder(registry);
    private CompactSlf4jReporter(MetricRegistry registry,
            Logger logger,
            Marker marker,
            TimeUnit rateUnit,
            TimeUnit durationUnit,
            MetricFilter filter) {
        super(registry, "logger-reporter", filter, rateUnit, durationUnit);
        this.logger = logger;
        this.marker = marker;
    public void report(SortedMap<String, Gauge> gauges,
            SortedMap<String, Counter> counters,
            SortedMap<String, Histogram> histograms,
            SortedMap<String, Meter> meters,
            SortedMap<String, Timer> timers) {
        StringBuilder data = new StringBuilder();
        for (Entry<String, Gauge> entry : gauges.entrySet()) {
            addGauge(data, entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
        for (Entry<String, Counter> entry : counters.entrySet()) {
            addCounter(data, entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
        for (Entry<String, Histogram> entry : histograms.entrySet()) {
            addHistogram(data, entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
        for (Entry<String, Meter> entry : meters.entrySet()) {
            addMeter(data, entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
        for (Entry<String, Timer> entry : timers.entrySet()) {
            addTimer(data, entry.getKey(), entry.getValue());
        }, data.toString());
    private void addTimer(StringBuilder data, String name, Timer timer) {
        final Snapshot snapshot = timer.getSnapshot();
        data.append(" type=timer.").append(name).append(":");
        data.append(" count=").append(timer.getCount());
        data.append(", min=").append(convertDuration(snapshot.getMin()));
        data.append(", max=").append(convertDuration(snapshot.getMax()));
        data.append(", mean=").append(convertDuration(snapshot.getMean()));
        data.append(", stdDev=").append(convertDuration(snapshot.getStdDev()));
        data.append(", median=").append(convertDuration(snapshot.getMedian()));
        data.append(", p75=").append(convertDuration(snapshot.get75thPercentile()));
        data.append(", p95=").append(convertDuration(snapshot.get95thPercentile()));
        data.append(", p98=").append(convertDuration(snapshot.get98thPercentile()));
        data.append(", p99=").append(convertDuration(snapshot.get99thPercentile()));
        data.append(", 999=").append(convertDuration(snapshot.get999thPercentile()));
        data.append(", mean_rate=").append(convertRate(timer.getMeanRate()));
        data.append(", m1=").append(convertRate(timer.getMeanRate()));
        data.append(", m5=").append(convertRate(timer.getMeanRate()));
        data.append(", m15=").append(convertRate(timer.getMeanRate()));
        data.append(", rate_unit=").append(getRateUnit());
        data.append(", duration_unit=").append(getDurationUnit());
    private void addMeter(StringBuilder data, String name, Meter meter) {
        data.append(" type=meter.").append(name).append(":");
        data.append(" count=").append(meter.getCount());
        data.append(", mean_rate=").append(convertRate(meter.getMeanRate()));
        data.append(", m1=").append(convertRate(meter.getOneMinuteRate()));
        data.append(", m5=").append(convertRate(meter.getFiveMinuteRate()));
        data.append(", m15=").append(convertRate(meter.getFifteenMinuteRate()));
        data.append(", rate_unit=").append(getRateUnit());
    private void addHistogram(StringBuilder data, String name, Histogram histogram) {
        final Snapshot snapshot = histogram.getSnapshot();
        data.append(" type=histogram.").append(name).append(":");
        data.append(" count=").append(histogram.getCount());
        data.append(", min=").append(snapshot.getMin());
        data.append(", max=").append(snapshot.getMax());
        data.append(", mean=").append(snapshot.getMean());
        data.append(", stdDev=").append(snapshot.getStdDev());
        data.append(", median=").append(snapshot.getMedian());
        data.append(", p75=").append(snapshot.get75thPercentile());
        data.append(", p95=").append(snapshot.get95thPercentile());
        data.append(", p98=").append(snapshot.get98thPercentile());
        data.append(", p99=").append(snapshot.get99thPercentile());
        data.append(", 999=").append(snapshot.get999thPercentile());
    private void addCounter(StringBuilder data, String name, Counter counter) {
        data.append(" counter.").append(name).append(": ").append(counter.getCount());
    private void addGauge(StringBuilder data, String name, Gauge gauge) {
        data.append(" gauge.").append(name).append(": ").append(gauge.getValue());
    protected String getRateUnit() {
        return "events/" + super.getRateUnit();
     * A builder for {@link com.codahale.metrics.CsvReporter} instances. Defaults to logging to {@code metrics}, not
     * using a marker, converting rates to events/second, converting durations to milliseconds, and
     * not filtering metrics.
    public static final class Builder {
        private final MetricRegistry registry;
        private Logger logger;
        private Marker marker;
        private TimeUnit rateUnit;
        private TimeUnit durationUnit;
        private MetricFilter filter;
        private Builder(MetricRegistry registry) {
            this.registry = registry;
            this.logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger("metrics");
            this.marker = null;
            this.rateUnit = TimeUnit.SECONDS;
            this.durationUnit = TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS;
            this.filter = MetricFilter.ALL;
         * Log metrics to the given logger.
         * @param logger an SLF4J {@link Logger}
         * @return {@code this}
        public Builder outputTo(Logger logger) {
            this.logger = logger;
            return this;
         * Mark all logged metrics with the given marker.
         * @param marker an SLF4J {@link Marker}
         * @return {@code this}
        public Builder markWith(Marker marker) {
            this.marker = marker;
            return this;
         * Convert rates to the given time unit.
         * @param rateUnit a unit of time
         * @return {@code this}
        public Builder convertRatesTo(TimeUnit rateUnit) {
            this.rateUnit = rateUnit;
            return this;
         * Convert durations to the given time unit.
         * @param durationUnit a unit of time
         * @return {@code this}
        public Builder convertDurationsTo(TimeUnit durationUnit) {
            this.durationUnit = durationUnit;
            return this;
         * Only report metrics which match the given filter.
         * @param filter a {@link MetricFilter}
         * @return {@code this}
        public Builder filter(MetricFilter filter) {
            this.filter = filter;
            return this;
         * Builds a {@link CompactSlf4jReporter} with the given properties.
         * @return a {@link CompactSlf4jReporter}
        public CompactSlf4jReporter build() {
            return new CompactSlf4jReporter(registry, logger, marker, rateUnit, durationUnit, filter);